Different types of pen
Fountain pen is also called automatic water pen, whose nib is made of special metal. Fountain pen has setting inside to store the ink, which flow to nib when writing
ountain pen can be divided into golden pen, iridium-point pen and ordinary pen according to the different materials the nib are made of. The nib of golden pen is basically made of alloy that can be divided into 14K (58.33% of gold) and 12K (50% of gold) according to the percentage of gold contained. The nib of iridium-point pen is basically made of abrasion-proof stainless steel and an iridium grain is welded at the point of the nib. The iridium-point pen has two types - the advanced one and the ordinary one, according to the different structure and different materials it adopts. The nib of ordinary pen is also generally made of acid-proof stainless steel, but there is no iridium grain welded at the point of the nib.
1) Wooden Pencil
In 1564, Englishman cut the graphite into slim rods, which were sold in the London market. Storekeeper and merchant called these slim rods “Print Stone”, which were the “most primitive pencil”. But the shortcoming of this kind of “pencil” was the frangibility.
In 1761, after all kinds of tests, German chemist Faubel recognized that if sulfur, stibium and resin were mixed into graphite and the mixture were heated, the “pencil” could come into forth by pressing the hardened mixture. This kind of improved pencil had moderate hardness and made writing smooth and fluent without dirtying hands.
In 1789, France chemist Conteh adulterated the graphite with some clay to bring forth the best brush-pencil in the world. By adding clays with different properties into the graphite, the “Hard Lead” and “Soft Lead” could be acquired. But Conteh’s and Faubel’s pencil only had one slim rod, which was easy broken.
In 1812, William Monroe, a carpenter in Massachusetts, UAS, produced many standard wood rods of 5cm to 18cm by a machine set in earth deposits. The standard wood rod was cut a groove inside right by machine, and then a graphite rod was placed between two wood rods with grooves inside, and finally these two wood rods were tightened with glue. So, the first modern pencil came into being.
In 1915, the Japanese Hayakawa Tokushu invented a new kind of pencil whose core could be repeatedly pushed out and in. This kind pencil is the prototype of the mechanical pencil today largely used. Now there are more than 300 kinds of pencil are made in the world.
2) Mechanical pencil
In the early years of last century, Japanese invented the earliest mechanical pencil with spinning structure. Chinese began to introduce this kind of mechanical pencil in 1940s to 1950s.
Press-type pencil was also called injection pencil. At the head of the this kind of pencil, there was collet to clamp the pencil core, and the collet was made of plastic or metal. Press-type pencil could be divided into two types – press-head type and press-side type, according to the press position.
The true mechanical pencil can make the core out automatically by the pressure from the writing force. This kind of pencil is the masterpiece in manufacturing process and technology.
Oiliness Ballpoint Pen:Oiliness ballpoint pen takes its name after the writing medium – oil-based ink.
Since invented in 1944, oiliness ballpoint pen has prevailed in the world as a successful writing tool. It is single-structured, portable, lubricant in writing and of many and varied types. The ballpoint of this kind of pen often adopts stainless steel or hard alloy and the oil-based ink used is tailor-made of pigment, solvent and adhesive mixed together. The usual ink colors are blue, black and red. The ordinary ink is used for general writing, and the special type ink for formal files.
Gel Ink Pen
1) Gel ink pen takes its name after its writing medium – gel ink whose viscosity is between water-based ink and oil-based ink. As a novel writing tool widely used in the world, the gel ink pen is of Japan origin.
Gel ink pen possesses the merits of both fountain pen and ball pen and makes the writer feel good when writing. Its gel ink is of low viscosity and can be easy adulterated with lubricant substance to make the writing more fluent and beautiful. This kind of gel ink pen has been the updated and upgraded product replacing the oiliness ballpoint pen.
2) The pen-making specialists usually divide the gel ink pens according to 4 standards. According to the type of the pen tip, gel ink pen can be divided:
Bullet type ----- The tip of this kind of gel ink pen is just like a bullet. We make it through cutting a original rod into a whole pen tip during the producing process. For the good looking of the pen, we also cut the original rod into half-needle or cucurbit shape. The bullet type is more suitable for the thicker pen tip up to 1.2.
Needle type ----- Usually we call this kind of pen tip “the whole-needle”, whose key difference from bullet type exists in the cutting mode – the needle type is processed through non-cutting operation. Before the pen tip forms, the precision instrument punches three depression points from three directions to form the ball seat on a whole original rod and the back tubule is made into the triangle ink pit. When the ink flows out through the oil pit, and is pressed out by the rolling of the ball, it is possible to complete the writing process. The needle type is more suitable for the thinner pen tip, for instance, 0.35、0.30 etc..
The pen whose ink is water-based is called water-based ballpoint pen, roller ball, roller pen etc. This kind of pen has the character of fountain pen and oiliness ballpoint pen and can make writing smooth and fluent with regular lines.
The ink of this kind pen can be stored in fibrous-bundle tube or non-fibrous-bundle tube, and the usual ink colors of this kind of pen are red, blue, black and green etc.